E-ISSN 2146-8133
 

Review Article 


Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen.

Cited by (4)

Abstract
Scoliosis is called idiopathic when no other underlying disease can be identified. The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is still unknown despite many years of research effort. Theories on AIS’s etiology have included mechanical, hormonal, metabolic, neuromuscular, growth, and genetic abnormalities. Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk of curve progression. The adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. Scoliosis in children of school age and above primarily occurs in girls. The therapeutic goal in children is to prevent progression. In children, scoliosis of 20° or more should be treated with a brace, and scoliosis of 45° or more with surgery.

Key words: Idiopathic scoliosis, spine, brace


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Safak Ekinci
Articles by Omer Ersen
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 4484
Downloaded: 979
Cited: 4


REFERENCES
1. Lonstein JE. Scoliosis: surgical versus nonsurgicaltreatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2006;443:248-259. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
2. Malfair D, Flemming AK, Dvorak MF, Munk PL,Vertinsky AT, Heran MK, et al. Radiographic evaluationof scoliosis: review. AJR Am J Roentgenol2010;194(3Suppl):S8-22. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
3. Schiller JR, Thakur NA, Eberson CP. Brace managementin adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. ClinOrthop Relat Res 2010;468:670-678. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
4. Weinstein SL, Zavala DC, Ponseti IV. Idiopathicscoliosis: long-term follow-up and prognosisin untreated patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am1981;63:702-712. [Pubmed]   
5. Rowe DE. The Scoliosis Research Society BraceManual. Milwaukee, WI, Scoliosis Research Society,1998;1–9. [Pubmed]   
6. Danielsson AJ, Hasserius R, Ohlin A, NachemsonAL. A prospective study of brace treatment versusobservation alone in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis:a follow-up mean of 16 years after maturity.Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2007;32:2198-2207. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
7. Trobisch P, Suess O, Schwab F. Idiopathic scoliosis.Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010;107:875-883. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
8. Bunnell WP. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis.Clin Orthop Relat Res 1988;(229):20-25. [Pubmed]   
9. Wever DJ, T�nseth KA, Veldhuizen AG, Cool JC,van Horn JR. Curve progression and spinal growthin brace treated idiopathic scoliosis. Clin OrthopRelat Res 2000;(377):169-179. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
10. Cheung KM, Wang T, Qiu GX, Luk KD. Recentadvances in the aetiology of adolescent idiopathicscoliosis. Int Orthop 2008;32:729-734. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
11. van Rhijn LW, Jansen EJ, Plasmans CM, VeraartBE. Curve characteristics in monozygotic twinswith adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: 3 new twinpairs and a review of the literature. Acta OrthopScand 2001;72:621-625. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
12. Justice CM, Miller NH, Marosy B, Zhang J, WilsonAF. Familial idiopathic scoliosis: evidence of an Xlinkedsusceptibility locus. Spine (Phila Pa 1976)2003;28:589-594.
13. Wise CA, Barnes R, Gillum J, Herring JA, BowcockAM, Lovett M. Localization of susceptibility to familialidiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976)2000;25:2372-2380.
14. Czeizel A, Bellyei A, Barta O, Magda T, Moln�r L.Genetics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J MedGenet 1978;15:424-427. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
15. Maguire J, Madigan R, Wallace S, Leppanen R,Draper V. Intraoperative long-latency reflex activityin idiopathic scoliosis demonstrates abnormalcentral processing. A possible cause of idiopathicscoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1993;18:1621-1626. [DOI via Crossref]   
16. Ahl T, Albertsson-Wikland K, Kal�n R. Twenty-four-hour growth hormone profiles in pubertalgirls with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa1976) 1988;13:139-142. [DOI via Crossref]   
17. Skogland LB, Miller JA, Skottner A, Fryklund L.Serum somatomedin A and non-dialyzable urinaryhydroxyproline in girls with idiopathic scoliosis.Acta Orthop Scand 1981;52:307-313. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
18. Allen DB. Safety of human growth hormone therapy:current topics. J Pediatr 1996;128(5 Pt 2):S8-13. [DOI via Crossref]   
19. Misol S, Ponseti IV, Samaan N, Bradbury JT. Growthhormone blood levels in patients with idiopathicscoliosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1971;81:122-125. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
20. Girardo M, Bettini N, Dema E, Cervellati S. Therole of melatonin in the pathogenesis of adolescentidiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Eur Spine J 2011;20Suppl 1:S68-74. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
21. Grivas TB, Savvidou OD. Melatonin the "light ofnight" in human biology and adolescent idiopathicscoliosis. Scoliosis 2007;2:6. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
22. Bagnall KM, Raso VJ, Hill DL, Moreau M, MahoodJK, Jiang H, et al. Melatonin levels in idiopathicscoliosis. Diurnal and nocturnal serum melatoninlevels in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1996;21:1974-1978. [DOI via Crossref]   
23. Kindsfater K, Lowe T, Lawellin D, Weinstein D,Akmakjian J. Levels of platelet calmodulin for theprediction of progression and severity of adolescentidiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am1994;76:1186-1192. [Pubmed]   
24. Cohen DS, Solomons CS, Lowe TG. Alteredplatelet calmodulin activity in AIS. Orthop Trans1985;9:106.
25. Roach JW. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. OrthopClin North Am 1999;30:353-365, vii-viii. [DOI via Crossref]   
26. Miller NH. Cause and natural history of adolescentidiopathic scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am1999;30:343-352, vii. [DOI via Crossref]   
27. Reamy BV, Slakey JB. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis:review and current concepts. Am Fam Physician2001;64:111-116. [Pubmed]   
28. Lonstein JE, Carlson JM. The prediction of curveprogression in untreated idiopathic scoliosis duringgrowth. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984;66:1061-1071. [Pubmed]   
29. Weinstein SL, Ponseti IV. Curve progressionin idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am1983;65:447-455. [Pubmed]   
30. Hippocrates. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates(translated by Adams F). Sydenham Society, London,1849.
31. Fayssoux RS, Cho RH, Herman MJ. A history ofbracing for idiopathic scoliosis in North America.Clin Orthop Relat Res 2010;468:654-664. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
32. Marketos SG, Skiadas PK. Galen: a pioneer of spineresearch. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1999;24:2358-2362. [DOI via Crossref]   
33. Lovett RW. History of scoliosis. In: Lateral Curvatureof the Spine and Round Shoulders. Philadelphia,PA: P. Blackiston's Son & Co; 1916;1–7.
34. Riesz PB. The life of Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen.AJR Am J Roentgenol 1995;165:1533-1537. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
35. Moen KY, Nachemson AL. Treatment of scoliosis.An historical perspective. Spine (Phila Pa 1976)1999;24:2570-2575.
36. Hibbs RA, Risser JC, Ferguson AB. Scoliosis treatedby the fusion operation. End-result study ofthree hundred and sixty cases. J Bone Joint Surg1931;13:91–104.
37. Risser JC. The iliac apophysis: An invaluable sign inthe management of scoliosis. Clin Orthop Rel Res1958;11:111–119.
38. Ponseti IV, Friedman B. Prognosis in idiopathic scoliosis.J Bone Joint Surg Am 1950;32A:381–395. [Pubmed]   
39. Blount WP, Schmidt AC, Keever ED, Leonard ET.The Milwaukee brace in the operative treatment ofscoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1958;40-A:511–525. [Pubmed]   
40. Kinel E, Kotwicki T, Stryła W, Szulc A. Correctivebracing for severe idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence:influence of brace on trunk morphology.ScientificWorldJournal 2012;2012:435158.
41. Richards BS, Bernstein RM, D'Amato CR, ThompsonGH. Standardization of criteria for adolescentidiopathic scoliosis brace studies: SRS Committeeon Bracing and Nonoperative Management. Spine(Phila Pa 1976) 2005;30:2068-2075. [DOI via Crossref]   
42. Oestreich AE, Young LW, Young Poussaint T. Scoliosiscirca 2000: radiologic imaging perspective.I. Diagnosis and pretreatment evaluation. SkeletalRadiol 1998;27:591-605. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
43. Ramirez N, Johnston CE, Browne RH. The preva-lence of back pain in children who have idiopathicscoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997;79:364-368. [Pubmed]   
44. Rowe DE, Bernstein SM, Riddick MF, Adler F,Emans JB, Gardner-Bonneau D. A meta-analysisof the efficacy of non-operative treatmentsfor idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am1997;79:664-674. [Pubmed]   
45. Dubousset J, Herring JA, Shufflebarger H. Thecrankshaft phenomenon. J Pediatr Orthop1989;9:541-550. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
46. Coe JD, Arlet V, Donaldson W, Berven S, HansonDS, Mudiyam R, et al. Complications in spinal fusionfor adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the newmillennium. A report of the Scoliosis Research SocietyMorbidity and Mortality Committee. Spine(Phila Pa 1976) 2006;31:345-349. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   

This Article Cited By the following articles

Does postural stability differ between adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and typically developed? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Scoliosis 2018; 13(1): .

1
 
Effect of physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises using breathing pattern on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
J Phys Ther Sci 2016; 28(11): 3261.

2
 
Letter to the Editor: Evidence-Based of Nonoperative Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
Asian Spine J 2015; 9(2): 313.

3
 
Letter to the Editor: Lumbar Morphometry: A Study of Lumbar Vertebrae from a Pakistani Population Using Computed Tomography Scans
Asian Spine J 2015; 9(2): 316.

4
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2014; 3(3): 174-182. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147


Web Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. http://www.ejmaces.com/?mno=35151 [Access: December 15, 2019]. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2014; 3(3): 174-182. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Arch Clin Exp Surg. (2014), [cited December 15, 2019]; 3(3): 174-182. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147



Harvard Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen (2014) Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Arch Clin Exp Surg, 3 (3), 174-182. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147



Turabian Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen. 2014. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES), 3 (3), 174-182. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147



Chicago Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen. "Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis." Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES) 3 (2014), 174-182. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen. "Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis." Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES) 3.3 (2014), 174-182. Print. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen (2014) Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES), 3 (3), 174-182. doi:10.5455/aces.20130422110147





Most Viewed Articles
  • Hirudotherapy /Leech therapy: Applications and Indications in Surgery
    Swaid Abdullah, Latief M. Dar, Adil Rashid, Anita Tewari
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(3): 172-180
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120402072447

  • Role of Probiotics in Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease
    Amit Bhardwaj, Shalu V Bhardwaj
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 45-49
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120212100645

  • Use of Polyethylene Fiber (Ribbond) in Pediatric Dentistry
    Eda Arat Maden, Ceyhan Altun
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(2): 110-115
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120416115640

  • Role of Ultrasonography (“Honeycomb Sign”) in Early Detection of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
    Sudhir Sachar, Sunder Goyal, Saurabh Sachar
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2013; 2(1): 38-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120828025157

  • Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis presenting as an abdominal wall mass
    Marc Paul Jose Lopez, John Paul Senon Gonzalez, Manuel Francisco Tanada Roxas
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2017; 6(1): 53-55
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/aces.20150809085449

  • Barium Enema in the Diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s Disease: A Comparison with Rectal Biopsy
    Mohammad Abbas, Arshad Rashid, Asim Rafiq Laharwal, Ajaz Ahmad Wani, Shabir Ahmad Dar, Manzoor Ahamad Chalkoo, Showkat Majeed Kakroo
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2013; 2(4): 224-228
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120703031135

  • Long-Term Productive Cough Caused by Tracheal Bronchus
    Chih-Hao Chen, Shih-Yi Lee, Ho Chang, Tzu-Ti Hung
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(2): 120-121
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120311102403

  • Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    Cihan Sahin, Onat Yilmaz, Yalcin Bayram, Huseyin Karagoz, Celalettin Sever, Yalcin Kulahci, Alpay Ates
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2013; 2(2): 109-115
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120722123102

  • A Review of the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars: Part I Clinical Aspects
    Huseyin Karagoz, Celalettin Sever, Yalcin Bayram, Cihan Sahin, Yalcin Kulahci, Ersin Ulkur
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(4): 237-248
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120218124923

  • Day–Care Surgery for Pilonidal Sinus Using Sinotomy Technique and Fibrin Glue Injection
    Selim Sozen, Vedat Ozturk, Koray Das, Hasan Erdem, Suleyman Cetinkunar, Ilhan Bali
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(3): 138-141
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120625121721

  • Most Downloaded
  • Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis presenting as an abdominal wall mass
    Marc Paul Jose Lopez, John Paul Senon Gonzalez, Manuel Francisco Tanada Roxas
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2017; 6(1): 53-55
    » Abstract » doi: 10.5455/aces.20150809085449

  • Hirudotherapy /Leech therapy: Applications and Indications in Surgery
    Swaid Abdullah, Latief M. Dar, Adil Rashid, Anita Tewari
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(3): 172-180
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120402072447

  • Role of Probiotics in Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease
    Amit Bhardwaj, Shalu V Bhardwaj
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 45-49
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120212100645

  • Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    Cihan Sahin, Onat Yilmaz, Yalcin Bayram, Huseyin Karagoz, Celalettin Sever, Yalcin Kulahci, Alpay Ates
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2013; 2(2): 109-115
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120722123102

  • Use of Polyethylene Fiber (Ribbond) in Pediatric Dentistry
    Eda Arat Maden, Ceyhan Altun
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(2): 110-115
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120416115640

  • Pleomorphic Adenoma of Parotid Gland in The Elderly: Do We Always Need to Operate?
    Vikas Malik, Nicholas J Kay, Timothy M Ramsay
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 41-44
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120212062039

  • Pannus-Related Mechanical Valve Dysfunction Leading to Hemodynamic Shock
    Manabu Shiraishi, Chieri Kimura, Taro Takeuchi, Miki Kanoh, Kenichi Muramatsu, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Hideo Adachi
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 50-53
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120218124633

  • A Study of Methods Used to Reduce Surgical Site Infections
    Stuart R. Walker, Tara Anderson
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 27-33
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120213053645

  • Principles of risk management in surgery departments
    Fatemeh Rezaei, Mohammad H Yarmohammadian, Masoud Ferdosi, Abbas Haghshenas
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2015; 4(3): 126-134
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20140925015830

  • An Experimental Study of the Effect of Periosteal Stripping on Limb Length in Rabbits
    Ramesh Narula, Sultan Ali Sadiq, Balgopal Nair, Kusum Narula
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2014; 3(2): 94-101
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20140101031904

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Hirudotherapy /Leech therapy: Applications and Indications in Surgery
    Swaid Abdullah, Latief M. Dar, Adil Rashid, Anita Tewari
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(3): 172-180
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120402072447
    Cited : 15 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Experimental Craniofacial Composite Tissue Allotransplantation (CCTA) Models in Rats
    Yalcin Kulahci, Yalcin Bayram, Huseyin Karagoz, Celalettin Sever, Cihan Sahin
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(3): 181-187
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120514010906
    Cited : 13 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Thoracodorsal Artery Perforator Flap: Basic Surgical Determinants
    Celalettin Sever, Yalcin Bayram, Cihan Sahin
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(4): 270-271
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120506072849
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The effect of Kristeller maneuver on maternal and neonatal outcome
    Gokhan Acmaz, Evrim Albayrak, Gokalp Oner, Murvet Baser, Gulsum Aykut, Gulender Tas Tekin, Gokmen Zararsiz, Iptisam Ipek Muderris
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2015; 4(1): 29-35
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20140328024258
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Pre-expanded Supraclavicular Flap for Post-burn Neck Contractures
    Celalettin Sever, Cihan Sahin
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 61-62
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120205090034
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Day–Care Surgery for Pilonidal Sinus Using Sinotomy Technique and Fibrin Glue Injection
    Selim Sozen, Vedat Ozturk, Koray Das, Hasan Erdem, Suleyman Cetinkunar, Ilhan Bali
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(3): 138-141
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120625121721
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Myocardial Protection in Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery: Comparison of the Cold-Blood Cardioplegia of the Bretschneider Solution and the Warm-Blood Cardioplegia of the Calafiore Protocol
    Inna Kammerer, Ragi Nagib, Gernot Hipp, Markus Preßmar, Mathias Hansen, Ulrich FW Franke
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 14-21
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120220022958
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Spontaneous Healing and Treatment Alternatives in Burns
    Mehmet Bozkurt, Emin Kapi, Yusuf Acar, Yalcin Bayram
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2013; 2(3): 186-196
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20130306035449
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
    Safak Ekinci, Omer Ersen
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2014; 3(3): 174-182
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20130422110147
    Cited : 4 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Slow-Release Drug Deliver System with Polylactic Acid Hydrogels in Prevention of Tracheal Wall Fibroplasia
    Jinrang Li, Lili Peng, Jianjun Sun, Hongguang Guo, Kun Guo, Zuogang Li, Yao Tang, Xu Sun, Shuangqing Zhang
    Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 1-7
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/aces.20120220105531
    Cited : 3 times [Click to see citing articles]